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2021考研英语:语法长难句之定语从句和状语从句

  摘要:今天带来的是定语从句和状语从句的内容,语法很重要,大家要认真学习,打好考研英语的基础。记得收藏起来哦~

  第一部分:定语从句

  一、理论常识

  在复合句中作定语,修饰主句中某一名词或代词的从句。

  结构:先行词+关系词(分为关系副词和关系代词)+从句

  关系代词(that , who , which , whose , as)

  关系副词(when , where , why , how)

  定语从句分为限制性定语从句及非限制定语从句,限定从直接放在先行词后,非限定从与先行词之间要加逗号。

  二、试题举例

  例句1:

  The Aswan Dam , for example , stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left-all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity .

  【重点词汇解析】deprive sb. of sth. 剥夺某人某物;silt,n. 淤泥 v. (使)淤塞

  【参考翻译】例如,阿斯旺大坝阻止了尼罗河的洪水侵袭,但是也夺去了埃及的洪水留下的肥沃淤泥---这一切换来的却是一个巨大的病态的水库,这个水库积满了淤泥,以至于几乎不能发电了。

  例句2:

  The second , by Joshua Greenberge , takes a more empirical approach to universality , identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many languages , which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints . (2012,49)

  【重点词汇解析】empirical,adj. 经验主义的;result from 由……造成;cognitive,adj. 认知的

  【参考翻译】第二个为此做出努力的人是约书亚·格林伯格,他采用经验主义的方法来研究普遍性,确认多种语言(尤其是语序方面的)共同特征,这些特征被认为是体现了由于认知局限性而带来的偏见。

  例句3:

  His function is analogous to that of a judge , who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a matter as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision . (2006,47)

  【重点词汇解析】analogous,adj. 类似的;reveal,vt. 揭露;reason,n. 理由 v. 推论

  【参考翻译】他的职责类似于法官的职责,后者必须承担起这样的责任:用尽可能明显的方式来揭示让他做出决定的推理过程。

  第二部分:状语从句

  一、理论常识

  状语从句,属于副词性从句,简单说就是从句在句子中担任状语,分为时间、目的、地点、条件、方式、让步、比较、结果、原因9种状语从句。

  时间引导词:

  when , after , before , while , until , till , since , as soon as , everytime , the moment等

  地点引导词:where , wherever等

  原因引导词:because , since=now that , as等

  条件引导词:

  if , whether , unless , as long as ,on condition that , providing that等

  结果引导词:so / such ... that , so等

  目的引导词:in order that , so that等

  让步引导词:

  though , although , however , whatever=no matter what even if , even though , as (倒装) 等

  方式引导词:as , as if等

  比较引导词:

  than , as ... as , the more ... , the more ... 等

  二、试题举例

  例句1:

  While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role , informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a child's development .

  【重点词汇解析】transmit,vt. 传输、传播 vi. 传输、发射信号;(in)formal,adj. (非)正式的

  【参考翻译】尽管正式的学习过程是由挑选出来担当此角色的教师来进行的,非正式的学习过程却是作为孩子成长的自然一部分而完成的。

  例句2:

  While it is true that this competition may induce efforts to expand territory at the expense of others , and thus lead to conflict , it cannot be said that war-like conflict among other nations is inevitable , although competition is .

  【重点词汇解析】territory,n. 领土、版图;expense,n. 代价、损失 vt. 向……收取费用;inevitable,adj. 不可避免的

  【参考翻译】虽然这种竞争会引发以他人利益为代价的领土扩张行动,因此也会引发冲突,但却不能认为类似于战争的国家间的冲突不可避免,尽管竞争是不可避免的。

  例句3:

  While it is true that to date the Internet seems to be favoring the most developed sectors of the international community over the less developed , this need not always be the case .

  【重点词汇解析】favor,vt. 喜欢、赞成 n. 喜爱

  【参考翻译】尽管迄今为止互联网似乎更加青睐国际社会中的发达领域,而非不太发达的领域,情形并不总是如此。

 

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